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“not”的多种用法

发布时间:2016-03-07 14:51:09

1 not 可以置于 be 动词、情态动词及助动词之后,构成否定句。除了 am 和 not , may 和 not 不能合写之外,其余的一般都可以和 not合写。例如:


"not"是什么意思,大家肯定很清楚,但是关于"not"的多种用法你们知道吗?

一 . not 的位置

1. not 可以置于 be 动词、情态动词及助动词之后,构成否定句。除了 am 和 not , may 和 not 不能合写之外,其余的一般都可以和 not合写。例如:

( 1 ) He is not ( isn't ) a man to give things up easily.

他不是一个随便放弃的人。

( 2 ) He can not ( cannot, can't ) speak Chinese as well as Tom.

他的汉语没有汤姆讲得那么好。

( 3 ) You did not ( didn't ) know how worried I was about you at that time.

你不知道那时我是多么地担心你!

注: had better do sth, would rather do sth, would like to do sth. 和 be about to do sth. 的否定形式分别是 had better not do sth, would rather not do sth, would like not to do sth. 和 be about not to do sth ; used to 的否定形式是 usedn't to 或 didn't use to 。例如:

( 4 ) You'd better not eat too much chocolate, or you'll get too fat.

你最好不要吃太多的巧克力,否则身体会发胖的。

( 5 ) I would rather not accept his present.

我宁愿不要他的礼物。

2. not 可以置于分词、不定式和动名词之前,构成非谓语动词的否定形式。例如:

( 1 ) Not having received any reply from Tom, Mary decided to write to him again.

由于没收到汤姆的回音,玛丽决定再给他写封信。

( 2 ) He kept silent over the matter in order not to lose his job.

他对这件事保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的这份工作。

( 3 ) She was very upset for not having been invited to the party.

她因没有被邀请去参加晚会而感到很伤心。

3. not 的位置转移:

( 1 )主句的主语是第一人称 we 和 I ,谓语动词是 think, believe, imagine, suppose 等时,常将其后宾语从句中的否定词 not前移至这些动词之前。这种语法现象称之为否定转移。例如:

① I don't think the film is intended for children.

我觉得这部电影不适合儿童看。

② We don't believe he stole money from the stop.

我们相信他不会偷那店铺里的钱。

( 2 )若用“ It is / was … that …”去强调 until 引导的状语从句,主句中又有否定词 not,则常将 not 和 until 放在一起加以强调。例如:

It was not until he told me that I had an idea about it.

直到他告诉我,我才明白这件事。

( 3 )当 not until, not only (… but also …), not for a moment, not a single ……等位于句首时,有关分句的主语和谓语要倒装。例如:

① Not only has he been to London but also he worked there for a time.

他不仅去过伦敦,而且还在那里工作过一段时间。

( not only 后面的分句中的主语和谓语倒装, but also 后面分句中的主语和谓语不倒装。)

② Not for a moment did he doubt the truth of your story.

他从来都没怀疑过你的故事的真实性。

( 4 )“ don't + 动词原形”可以构成祈使句的否定形式。若强调这种祈使句中的主语,则需在动词原形前面加上主语(这时主语需要重读),也就是用“ don't + 主语 + 动词原形”结构。例如:

① Don't make any noise.

请不要吵闹。

② Don't you make any noise.

请你不要吵闹。

( 5 )“ Why not + 动词原形”是“ Why don't you + 动词原形”的省略形式,表示建议或劝告。例如:

If you still haven't made any final decision, why not go to our teacher for some advice?

要是你现在还没有最后下定决心的话,那你为什么不去找老师征求意见呢?

二 . not 的肯定意义及否定意义

1. not 和某些词搭配使用时,可以表示肯定意义。

( 1 ) not until / not … until 意为“直到……才……”; not only … but also …意为“不但……而且……”; not a few ( = many )意为“很多”; not a little ( = very, much )意为“很”或“非常”。例如:

① Not until he failed did he realize what mistakes he had made.

直到失败了他才明白他所犯的错误是什么性质。

② After a whole day's work, I was not a little tired.

过去一整天,我感到很累。

( 2 ) not 和某些词语搭配,构成双重否定:

not … without …没有哪次不; cannot … too …怎么样……都不为过分; not … but …没有……不……


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